Posts Tagged ‘Parental rights’

ARIZONA DIVORCE LAWYER: FATHER’S RIGHTS IN ARIZONA CUSTODY CASES

Monday, July 16th, 2012

Submitted by Attorney Douglas Gardner

 

East Valley Divorce Attorney Discusses Father’s Rights in Divorce Cases

 

 

Arizona has moved forward in terms of Father’s rights recently, which changes how cases should be handled whether you are the Mother or the Father.

 

In the 1970s and 1980s, a typical custody order would have the children reside with the Mother, and Father would see the children on alternating weekends and two weeks during the summer.  As we moved into the 1990s and the 2000s, Father’s rights and Father’s role in raising children received significant attention from mental health professionals, which trickled its way into state laws and into the courtroom practices of judges.  Weekday parenting time to the Father became more common, and alternating holidays, equal sharing of summer and Christmas school recess became more common.

 

Over just the last two years, the Courts have moved beyond this, to much more often awarding equal parenting time when the parent’s live close enough to allow the children stability in school while residing with both parents. 

 

Moving to equal parenting time has its pros and cons.  Many children feel like they live at neither house, but “camp” at both houses and move back and forth.  Other children enjoy the significant relationship with both parents being much more involved.  Equal time parenting plans allow both parents to have their own time as well as parenting time, and can balance the various difficulties  in life including jobs and other responsibilities.  However, Equal time for many mother’s necessarily includes reduced parenting time. 

 

One difficulty often ran into is societal expectations.  While these changes are great for Father’s that want to be more involved, many mother’s feel that the Court has punished them because they are familiar with other families in which the Mother was named the primary parent, and they feel that they are as good or better of a parent than this other parent.  Such comparisons fail to account for the dramatic changes in the law over just the past few years. 

 

While many Father’s enjoy this additional time with their children, some Father’s realize that having the children 50% of the time causes them to be away from work more of the time, as schooling, sick children, and other issues are now falling on their parenting time 50% of the time. 

 

Equal parenting time is not appropriate in all cases.  I still see many cases in which Father or Mother can provide a better life style, stability, safe environment, and other factors and in which we can persuade the Court to award my client’s more than 50%/50% custody.  However, proving that such is the case requires a solid case and a well prepared trial plan. 

 

If you are experiencing legal issues involving custody or other difficult issues, whether as part of a divorce, after the divorce has already been entered, or a custody battle in which the parents were never married, you should have experienced legal counsel on your side. Please call 800 899-2730 and ask to speak with attorney Douglas C. Gardner, or visit our website at yourarizonadivorcelawyer.com.

A Financial Benefit to Paying Child Support

Monday, July 2nd, 2012

Submitted by Attorney Kirk Smith

 

There is a general discontent among those who must pay child support. The consensus among them is not that they are unwilling to financially support their children; but rather, that they seemingly overcompensate the primary physical custodian for the expenses of the children, as these expenses fall appreciably lower than the child support they owe. Notwithstanding this perceived inequity, there is some consultation for child support obligors, as their tax liabilities generally decrease due to paying child support.

 

When child support is calculated each parent will be obligated to pay a specific percentage of the total amount calculated. How this plays out typically is that the primary physical custodian will pay nothing directly to the non-custodial parent, but the non-custodial parent will pay a specified sum each month to the primary physical custodian. For the purpose of this discussion do not get caught up in the fact that the primary physical custodian typically pays nothing directly to the non-custodial parent despite being allocated a percentage of the child support obligation.

 

An example of how these percentages might be allocated is; the primary physical custodian would be obligated to pay 20% of the total amount of child support calculated and the non-custodial parent would be obligated to pay 80% of the total amount of the child support calculated.

 

The family law courts will use these percentages under Number 27 of the Appendix of Arizona Revised Statutes 25-320, to determine the allocation between the parties of the dependent tax benefit, for the years following the divorce or separation.

 

Number 27 of the Appendix of Arizona Revised Statutes 25-320 states;

 

All the federal and state tax exemptions applicable to the minor children shall be allocated between the parents as they agree, or, in the absence of their agreement, in a manner that allows each parent to claim allowable federal dependency exemptions proportionate to adjusted gross income…To implement this provision, the proportionate share of the combined adjusted gross income of both parents is rounded to the nearest fraction with a denominator no larger than 5 (i.e. 1/2, 1/3, 2/3, 1/4, 3/4, 1/5, 2/5, 3/5, 4/5).

 

Applying this statute to the above example, and assuming that the parties have only 1 child, the non-custodial parent would receive the dependent tax benefit 4 out of the next 5 years. Looking at the years following the divorce or separation, 80% of 5 years is four years. The percentage then used to determine each parent’s child support obligation is also used to determine who receives the dependent tax benefit each year.

 

Figuring out who receives the dependent tax benefit can become more complicated with multiple children between the parties, however, the aforementioned principles still apply. Child support obligors then can take a measure of solace that even though their finances will diminish due to their child support obligation; their finances typically increase when it comes to receiving their yearend tax refund. 

If you are in need of legal counsel and would like to speak with an experienced attorney, please call 800 899-2730  or visit our website at www.yourarizonadivorcelawyer.com. or www.davismiles.com

 

 

ARIZONA DIVORCE LAWYER: COMMUNICATION ISSUES DURING AND AFTER DIVORCES (FOR THE CHILDREN’S SAKE)

Monday, June 18th, 2012

Submitted by Attorney Douglas Gardner

Tempe Arizona Divorce Attorney Speaks About Communicating With Spouse or Ex-Spouse About The Children

 

Most expensive Arizona divorces become expensive because of poor communication about the children.  Other factors can occasionally cause cases to get expensive, but generally custody issues have a large impact upon the cost of a case.

   

Except in extreme cases, the Court will generally order that the parties share joint legal custody.  Joint legal custody requires that both parents work together to make major medical, educational, and religious decisions.  In both sole custody and joint custody cases, the parties will still be required to have some level of communications regarding the logistics, including exchange times, exchange locations, and holiday scheduling.

 

In many cases, the parties will quickly (or at least eventually) learn to get along in a business-like relationship.  While the emotion and romance are long since gone, the parties should learn to work together at the business of raising their children.  Even in a business-like relationship, in which both parties are seeking to receive a personal advantage, parties can learn that it is mutually advantageous to compromise and to acquiesce to the other parent’s requests, so that at other times the other parent will compromise and acquiesce to future requests needed. 

 

It is important in developing a business-like relationship that the compromise work both ways, and the acquiescence work both ways.  If one parent is constantly a taker, and the other parent constantly acquiescing, this will cause resentment and will eventually result in a breakdown of communications and an unwillingness of one or both parents to compromise. 

 

A good divorce attorney should be able to discuss with you and share with you ways to work on communications, ways to set appropriate boundaries so that you are not taken advantage of, and other methods for “training” your ex-spouse or your soon-to-be-ex-spouse to understand that compromise works both ways. 

 

It is also of vital importance to have a detailed and strongly worded parenting plan in place.  While it is beneficial to both parents to work together and cooperate, and while it would be wonderful if both parents got along so well that the parenting plan was never needed, the fact is the parents are divorced or divorcing, and this indicates that there is a good chance that at least occasionally communications break down.  A solidly written parenting plan or custody order provides a fall back position for times when compromise is not occurring.  The parenting plan should detail the rights and responsibilities as well as the parenting times.  The parenting plan serves as the tie-breaking vote for occasions when no agreement can be reached.  The parent wishing to follow the written parenting plan prevails at that time. 

 

If you are experiencing legal issues involving custody or other difficult issues, whether as part of a divorce, after the divorce has already been entered, or a custody battle in which the parents were never married, you should have experienced legal counsel on your side. Please call 800 899-2730 and ask to speak with attorney Douglas C. Gardner, or visit our website at yourarizonadivorcelawyer.com.

Strategic Reasons for Being Nice-Custody Determination

Friday, June 8th, 2012

 

Submitted by Attorney Kirk Smith

 

In many cases, parents divorcing, or parents who were not married but are now separating, will fight a merciless custody battle for their children. The extreme acrimony attendant with such battles, in my experience, can have a very real impact on the children of these divorces. Increased cooperation between the parents lessens this emotional impact, and by itself, should be sufficient incentive for most parents to “play nice” during the subsequent legal process.  

 

None the less is there a strategic reason for one parent to be gracious to the other, outside altruism, that benefits them in the court’s final custody determination?  

 

In most cases one parent will become the primary physical custodian of the children, meaning that that parent will have the children at their residence the majority of the time each week. There are specific statutory factors the family law court examines when determining who becomes the primary physical custodian of the children. See Generally A.R.S. §25-403. 

 

One of the factors the court looks at in determining who should receive primary physical custodianship is;

 

Which parent is more likely to allow the child frequent and meaningful continuing contact with the other parent. This paragraph does not apply if the court determines that a parent is acting in good faith to protect the child from witnessing an act of domestic violence or being a victim of domestic violence or child abuse.A.R.S. § 25-403 (6)

Of course in some cases the other parent is a real danger to the children therefore it is necessary to diminish that other parent’s time with the children or ask that it be supervised. More often then not, however, both parents are usually suitable to care for the children, and an attempt to completely eliminate the other parent’s time with the children will be seen by the court negatively. The parent trying to “thwart” the other parent’s visitation with the children then could seriously and detrimentally effect that parent’s  chance of becoming the primary physical custodian because that parent did not “allow the child frequent and meaningful continuing contact with the other parent.”

If you are in need of legal counsel and would like to speak with an experienced attorney, please call 800 899-2730  or visit our website at yourarizonadivorcelawyer.com. or www.davismiles.com

A rule of thumb, assuming that the other parent is not a danger to the children, is to allow and encourage the other parent’s time with the children. This does not mean that you must have a half time schedule with the other parent, nor does it mean that anytime the other parent asks for time it must be provided. What it does mean is that going to extremes by trying to eliminate the other parent’s access to the children without good cause, strategically speaking, can backfire and decrease your chances of gaining the final custody determination from the court you wish.

 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEMPE AND MESA ARIZONA DIVORCE AND FAMILY LAW LAWYER COMMENTS ON COMMON TAX ISSUES

Thursday, May 3rd, 2012

Arizona Divorce And Family Law Tax Issues Must Be Considered Year Around By Attorneys and Parties

In dealing with hundreds of divorce and family law cases, parties and even many lawyers often forget to include provisions regarding common tax treatment. These important financial issues should not be overlooked.  As the April tax deadline for 2011 is behind us, we must nonetheless continue to look at 2012 and future tax years in all settlement and trials.

The most common issues is the claiming of the children for tax exemptions.  Under the federal Internal Revenue Service (IRS) rules, the parent with whom the child resides the greater part of the year is entitled to claim the child as a general rule.  The Federal IRS rules do, however, allow for the State Court divorce judge to make a different allocation.  Under Arizona family law, the statute requires that in most cases the Judge must divide the claiming of the children proportionate to income.  As far as the IRS goes, this is taken care of by the use of form 8332 which can be found online or obtained through a tax preparer.

It is to the benefit of both parties to consider who will benefit most from the tax exemption.  In some cases in which one party will receive a substantially greater advantage than the other party, one party can be permitted to claim the child every year in exchange for an increase or decrease in child support.  This would be done by agreement of the parties and should be included in an Order signed by the Court.

Another common issue is whether to file jointly or separately.  It is often financially advantageous to file jointly, though in high conflict cases the difficulty in working together toward a common goal may outweigh the financial advantage.  The total tax return can be divided equally in some cases.  In other cases, it is more fair to calculate the two returns separately, and then determine how to split the incremental increase in the refund if the parties file jointly.  Talk with your tax preparer or CPA regarding filing jointly or separately, and work with your divorce or family law attorney to ensure that your agreement is written in such a way to maximize your tax benefit.

There are tax advantages to being able to file as the head of household.  Generally this can be claimed by the parent with the child the majority of the time.  If divorcing couples have more than one child, they may each be able to claim at least one child as the head of household.  This should be reviewed by your tax preparer or CPA, and worked through with your divorce and family law attorney.

In some cases, it may be advantageous to file single, rather than married filing separately.  Even if your divorce case has not concluded, there are specific rules that when applicable may allow a party to file a single.  These rules include maintaining a separate residence for all of the past six months of the taxable year, and maintaining over half of the cost of maintaining the home.  You should work through these issues with your tax preparer or CPA, and work with your divorce lawyer to ensure that any agreements or court orders permit you to file as you have been advised by your tax professional.

Because the tax issues can be complex, you should ensure that you work with an experienced family law attorney or divorce lawyer.  If you are involved in a divorce or custody case, and are looking for experienced representation involving tax issues or other complex issues, please call 800 899-2730 and ask to speak with attorney Douglas C. Gardner, or visit our website at yourarizonadivorcelawyer.com.